Актуальные проблемы теории и истории искусства

ДЕ КУРТИЛЬ ЖАК (Университет Бордо Монтень, Франция). О новых подходах в исследовании древнегреческой архитектуры

JACQUES DES COURTILS (Bordeaux Montaigne University, France). On a New Approach to Ancient Greek Architecture

Ancient Greek architecture is not a new topic. Greek architects, at least some of them, wrote comments on the buildings they had built. Unfortunately, none of these books have reached us. More than two thousand years ago, Vitruvius inaugurated a new scientific area not only by studying the practice of building but by taking a retrospective look at the creations of the Greeks: Vitruvius quotes several Greek temples and seems to have inquired directly from those Greek architectural treatises now lost. But his descriptions and comments are marred by many flaws, as several modern commentators have pointed out: in particular, he seems to have mixed up his sources, moreover he or his translator did not fully understand the Greek language. Books on architecture after the Decem Libri de Architectura, such as Palladio’s I quattro Libri dell Architettura (1570) or Claude Perrault’s L’ordonnance des cinq espèces de colonnes selon la méthode des Anciens (1683) were only pale copies of Vitruvius’ work, as the subtitle of the translation of Vitruvius published in 1673 by the same Perrault proves : “corrigés et traduits nouvellement en français”. It wasn’t until the 18th century that the Dilettanti inaugurated the first truly scientific approach to study and measurement of ancient monuments. Since that time, studies and methods have multiplied, accumulating an extraordinary amount of knowledge about many monuments scattered among the ancient world. Still, many specialists limited their goal to the monographic description of the buildings and their stylistic study. Not many scientists ventured to study the building processes and the proportions of the buildings like J. Hambidge, J.J. Coulton, J. Bousquet and a few others. The goal of this paper is to explore some of the modern approaches to ancient architecture, by distinguishing on one hand different ways to plan a building in Antiquity, on the other hand different contemporary approaches to ancient architecture. Planning and building are two logical steps that seem to follow one another naturally but the reality is more complex: observing the hesitations of ancient builders that have left their marks in some of their buildings and new discoveries about the graphic processes they made use of, may lead to reconsidering to some extent our knowledge of ancient Greek architecture.

древнегреческая архитектура, строительство, пропорции, планирование построек

Greek architecture, building processes, proportions, planning

МАВРОЯННИС ТЕОДОРОС (Кипрский университет, Кипр). Композиция большого фриза Парфенона и организация афинского общества в эпоху демократии Перикла

THEODOROS MAVROGIANNIS (University of Cyprus, Cyprus). The Great Frieze of Parthenon and the Organization of the Athenian Society under the Democracy of Pericles

It is strange enough that, although several attempts were made to discern the criteria upon which the representation of the Athenians on the Parthenon-Frieze is based, there is no still consensus about the structure of the composition rendering the procession in honour of Athena, whether it was an idealized, thus an exemplary depiction of the Panathenaia on 15th Hecatombeon, when the entire population of Athens would be reunited in his social components, or an historical relief issued by the celebration of the feast in a given date between 447 and 432 B.C. The problem lies in the fact that the population of the Athenian citizens was strictly and legally organized according to institutions, going back as far as the timocratic reform of Solon in 591 B.C., which established the subdivision in four classes of citizens on the grounds of the revenues deriving from the land property. L. Beschi thought to have recognized that the composition revealed the new subdivision of Athenians in 10 territorial tribes following the Democratic revolution of Cleisthenes in 509 B.C. But the absence from the Frieze of the lower and most populous class of citizens, the thetai, who in fact acquired a major weight after the battle at Salamis in 480 B.C., creates a lot of problems. In as much, the preeminent presence of the Athenian cavalry in the Frieze may suggest that the Democracy of Pericles was not yet entered the radical way, as it is thought for the period after the abolition of the privileges of the Council of Areios Pagos in 461 B.C. put forward by Ephialtes, the mentor of Pericles. Unfortunately, we do not know all the institutional reforms introduced by Pericles after 447 B.C., whether the daily wages to be afforded by the State to the 500 bouleutai and the elected members of the tribunal of Heliaia were accompanied by a military reform of the cavalry. What seems to be true is that the Democracy of Pericles has preserved a class of aristocracy which appears only in the Frieze, to be identified with the two upper classes of the Solonian constitution. We do not have, therefore, at our disposal any clue to ascertain that the Solonian constitution was abolished or surpassed by the new Democratic institutions. In fact, the number of the knights in the Frieze of Parthenon 144, as they are represented in units of 3 knights, should be precise, and not indicative, of the recruitment of the cavaliers through the 48 naucrariai, the ancient territorial districts for the levies of the State of Solon. It should be remembered that an outstanding position in the Frieze is reserved to the metoikoi, the strangers domiciliating in Athens who contributed to the organization of the feasts, because of their wealth. Thus, we will stress to explain the most profound structure on the Athenian society, by reevaluating the iconography of the Great Frieze of Parthenon.    

Парфенон, Афины в эпоху Перикла, рельефы большого фриза, искусство и общество

Parthenon, Athens under Pericles, reliefs of the Great frieze, art and society

МЕДЕННИКОВА АЛЕКСАНДРА ЕВГЕНЬЕВНА (Папский Институт Христианской Археологии, Рим, Италия), КАРЕЛИН ДМИТРИЙ АЛЕКСЕЕВИЧ (Московский архитектурный институт (Государственная академия), Российская Федерация). К вопросу о значениях изображений крепостной архитектуры в римском искусстве

ALEKSANDRA MEDENNIKOVA (Papal Institute for Christian Archeology, Rome, Italy), DMITRY KARELIN (Moscow Architectural Institute (State Academy), Russian Federation). On the Implication of Pictured Fortification in Roman Art

Существует немало изображений городских стен, крепостей и лагерей в римском искусстве. Задачи исследования заключаются в попытке классифицировать изученные изображения, выявить малоизвестные по материалам археологии архитектурные особенности и элементы, а также проанализировать их черты. Изученные изображения можно разделить на несколько типов.

Во-первых, это изображения на монетах и медалях, представляющие собой в большинстве случаев фронтальные изображения ворот, или упрощенные аксонометрические изображения городов. К последним очень близки по характеру изображения городов и крепостей из кодексов.

Во-вторых, нам известны модели крепостей. Это глиняная курительница из Египесткого музея в Турине, глиняная модель сторожевой башни из музея в Регенсбурге, а так же существует много примеров прямоугольных жаровен. Одна из них имеет черты небольшой прямоугольной крепости, а другая похожа на круглую крепостную башню или римский мавзолей.

В-третьих, сохранилось немало фресок и мозаик, которые представляют города или ворота наподобие изображений на монетах и в кодексах. Известны специфические напольные мозаики прямоугольного в плане контура крепостных стен, часто совмещенные с изображением лабиринта.

В-четвертых, исключительно редкий пример являют пряжки ремня в форме ворот города или крепости, наибольший интерес из них представляет памятник, найденный рядом с Абриттом и датируемый серединой III века н.э.

Наконец, сохранилось немало примеров изображений укреплений в скульптуре, это, прежде всего, рельефы с колонн Траяна и Марка Аврелия, так называемые саркофаги у ворот города, а также ряд рельефов раннехристианского времени из слоновой кости, на которых в качестве фона для повествуемых сюжетов имелись изображения архитектуры, в том числе и городских стен.

Cегодня серьезно изучены все рассмотренные нами группы памятников изображенной городской архитектуры, например, монеты (Т. Дональдсон и Н. Элкинс) и рельефы колонны Траяна (Я. Ричмонд, Дж. Колстон и Э. Тилль). Однако эти труды не имеют сквозного характера и рассматривают произведения в пределах определенной группы.

В историографии достаточно подробно разработан мотив изображения города, и тот факт, что он в дальнейшем получил широкое распространение в христианском искусстве (А. Грабар, Э. Смит, С. Казартелли-Новелли, Ф. Бисконти, М. Давид и М.К. Кариле).

Подробно изучен и классифицирован археологический материал по многочисленным римским укреплениям, однако современная археологическая наука далеко не в полной мере использует весь рассматриваемый нами искусствоведческий материал для определения того, как могли бы выглядеть крепости.

Представляется, как связь между рассматриваемыми изображениями и античным культурным контекстом, в котором они сформировались, так и общие черты изображений укреплений в римском искусстве в целом требуют дальнейшего изучения. Более того, за последние десятилетия, был обнаружен ряд интересных памятников, расширяющих наше представление о рассматриваемой теме, например пряжка из Абритта.

Рассмотренные нами примеры дают немало ценной информации для понимания того, как могли выглядеть укрепления и их некоторые элементы. В то время как в большинстве реконструкций крепостей у башен условно показывают плоскую кровлю, удобную для расположения артиллерии, античные изображения представляют огромное разнообразие завершений кровель, как конусовидные, куполообразные, так даже с ротондами наверху башен, а так же вариации галерей, завершающих стены.

Представляется, что понимание сакральности городской границы (pomerium) и самого города в римской культуре может помочь пролить свет на смысл части исследуемых нами изображений стен, крепостей и городов в римском искусстве.

живопись, фрески, мозаики, монеты, модели, стена, башня, крепость, лагерь, ворота, римское искусство, изображённая архитектура

wall paintings, fresco, mosaic, coins, models, wall, tower, fortress, military camp, gate, Roman art, architectural backgrounds

ЛЕФАНЦИС МИХАИЛ (Министерство культуры и спорта Греции, Греция), КОРСО АНТОНИО (Университет Падуи, Италия), КОРКА ЭЛЕНИ (Афинский национальный университет имени Каподистрии, Греция). Архитектура и скульптура древней Тенеи в свете новых археологических находок

MICHAIL LEFANTZIS (Hellenic Ministry of Culture and Sports, Greece). ANTONIO CORSO (University of Padua, Italy), ELENI KORKA (National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Greece). Architecture and Sculpture of Ancient Tenea according to New Archaeological Finds

Tenea was an ancient town south of Corinth.

Until the end of last century, it was known mainly because of the kouros found in this city in the 1840s and brought to Munich, where it is kept.

In the early years of this century, other two kouroi were found and are now exposed in the Museum of Corinth.

Moreover, systematic excavations of the area of the ancient town, directed by Dr. Dr. Eleni Korka, began and brought to light, in chronological sequence, much of the ancient nekropolis, a Roman mausoleum, elements probably pertaining to a monumental altar of Augustan age and finally a significant part of the city’s center and specifically the Roman baths of this town.

During the recent period of the Tenea excavation, some important architectural members have been found, including Ionic and Doric capitals and column drums from different buildings.

Among these limestone blocks there were fragments of triglyphs, a part of a doric epistyle and part of a doric column capital derived probably from the same building.

Measuring the glyphs of the triglyph fragments in which a part of the metopes is saved, incorporated to the blocks, in relation with the taenia and the guttae of the epistyle, we found out that they belong to the same entablature of a middle scale Doric façade.

To this façade probably belongs also the fragment of a Doric capital, with no annulets. The beginning of the flutes is elaborated with a tooth chisel and only a part of the echinus and the hypotrachelion is saved.

After a preliminary analysis we believe that they are similar to those of the prostylon of the Thesaurus of Megara, at Delphi. The blocks of Tenea have the same dimensions and they form a similar building to this Thesaurus.

Based at the exact type of this monument, following the same dimensions and geometry for the formation of the front view we created an hypothetical representation of the blocks as part of the proposed entablature and finally, we have a suggestion regarding the entire front view of the monument, which was probably, an archaic naiskos, situated very near to the present excavation site.

Newly found sculptures shed light on the artistic culture of this center. These sculptures include: a. a fragment attributed to an Apollo of the Omphalos type, which may have been the cult statue of Apollo Teneatis (Strabo 8. 380); b. another fragment perhaps is pertinent to a statue of the so-called ‘Protesilaus’ type; c. the left corner of a pediment; d. a fragment perhaps to be attributed to an Artemis of the Dresden/Versailles/Malta types; e. a fragment of the Skopadic type of the Meleager; f. a statuette of the Knidian Aphrodite; g. a statuette of Stephanusa Aphrodite; and h. we are now studying a relief with Dionysus held by a Satyr which has been walled in the main church of Chiliomodi, the modern village above ancient Tenea, and is said to come from the theater.

These finds allow us to have an idea of the pantheon and of the visual culture of this town from the age of the severe style until the Roman imperial times.

Тенея, Коринф, сокровищница, бани, статуи

Tenea, Corinth, thesauros, baths, statues

ЛИКОРДАРИ АНТОНИО (Археологический парк Древней Остии, Италия), ПЕЛЛЕГРИНО АНЖЕЛО (Археологический парк Древней Остии, Италия). Сцены повседневной жизни в мозаиках древней Остии

ANTONIO LICORDARI (Parco Archeologico di Ostia Antica, Italy), ANGELO PELLEGRINO (Parco Archeologico di Ostia Antica, Italy). Scenes of Daily Life in the Mosaics of Ancient Ostia

In the period of greatest flowering of the mosaic in Ostia, that is the imperial age, the commission was represented by families of a more or less wealthy middle class. They were content to embellish the mosaic floors with a figurative repertoire often of poor artistic quality and simple motifs, not particularly original. In the Roman world black and white floors were widespread, simpler and cheaper to realize. This phenomenon also occurs in Ostia. The most rich social classes, however, allowed themselves to be influenced by the Hellenistic figurative culture and used several times polychrome mosaics.

The simplicity of execution of the mosaic technique with black and white pieces allowed to realize decorative programs of various kinds.

In the environments of vast surfaces mainly mythological themes, fantasy, with plenty of animals, gods and sea monsters, particularly suitable for a seaside resort are spread. These motifs derive from repertoires that were widespread since the late Hellenistic age and that were repeated with minimal variations. Local artists could be more or less in the understanding and elaboration of the subjects. But Ostia, a lively city for its harbour and its commercial exchanges with the major cities of the Mediterranean, also offers a wide repertoire of scenes dedicated to everyday life, on which we intend to focus our attention.

The following main themes can be identified:

1) The world of sport, with boxers, wrestlers and especially aspects of circus competitions. These representations are mainly used in the thermal baths, which by their nature were places intended for recreation to social relations and body care.

2) Peasant life as representation of seasons and work in the fields (for example in a funeral mosaic of Isola Sacra). The mosaic in the Baths of the Coachmen (Terme dei Cisiarii), which depicts a schematic image of city of the late Republican age and a scene of passenger transport by a pair of mules, is also connected to this argument.

3) The world of commerce with the multiple scenes of the Forum of Corporations (Piazzale delle Corporazioni), which are a unique testimony of the commercial relations between the capital of roman Empire and the provinces.

4) The depictions of people even socially humble as the lifeguards of the baths.

5) The grain measurement and its accounting record, which opens a window on the vital problem of urban population supply.

6) Other minor examples of daily life, as hunting and fishing, can also be found in “nilotic” scenes.

древняя Остия, мозаики, повседневность, торговля, термы

Ancient Ostia, mosaic, daily life, commerce, baths

РАМБАК АДРИЕН (Королевское Нумизматическое общество Бельгии, Бельгия). Мишле д’Эннери (1709–1786) — коллекционер греческих и римских монет

HADRIEN RAMBACH (Royal Numismatic Society of Belgium, Belgium). Michelet d’Ennery (1709–1786) a Collector of Greek and Roman Coins

Abraham Joseph Michelet de Vatimont, seigneur d’Ennery (1709-1786) has been celebrated as France’s most important collector of ancient coins – equal to Joseph Pellerin whose Greek coins are now in the French national library. His name appears in every publication about numismatics in the 18th century, and his life and collection has been studied by Adrien Blanchet, Thierry Sarmant, and François de Callataÿ, but always in a rather superficial way – no systematic study has been done of his numismatic catalogue, or of his correspondence.

A rumour spread in 1777 that he had sold his coins to the Tsarin Catherine II, but this proves to be mistaken: he continued to buy coins until his last days, and the auction-catalogue of his collection has become a reference book of scholarly value, which is still used to this day because of the many unique coins that it contains.

Manuscript diaries relate his encounter with the Milanese collector Don Carlo Trivulzio, and Michelet d’Ennery’s attempts to obtain important Roman gold coins by exchange – rather than purchase. This fits with the information found in numerous letters of the time have been preserved, wihch allow us to understand his collecting habits: preferably swapping coins, and acquiring entire collections – such as that of Claude Picart Duvau.

On the basis of those unpublished sources, some very rare Roman coins that belonged to Michelet d’Ennery, and whose pedigree has been lost since, will be identified, and when possible their further provenance to earlier collectors shall be traced. Examples of unique coins will also be given, whose existence is only known thanks to their inclusion in the 1788 auction-catalogue of his collection, as well as hoards whose existence is only documented in that catalogue.

нумизматика, коллекционирование, XVIII век, римские монеты, Франция, античность, древности, греческие древности

numismatics, collecting, 18th century, Roman coins, France, antiquities, manuscript sources, Greek antiquities, Roman antiquities

ДМИТРИЕВА ЕЛЕНА НИКОЛАЕВНА (Государственный Эрмитаж, Российская Федерация). К вопросу об атрибуции и провенансе трех сердоликовых инталий из собрания Государственного Эрмитажа

ELENA DMITRIEVA (The State Hermitage Museum, Russian Federation). On the Attribution and Provenance of the Three Cornelian Intaglios from the Collection of the State Hermitage Museum

Весной 1787 года императрица Екатерина II подтвердила своему агенту барону Фридриху Мельхиору Гримму (1723-1807) получение коллекции гемм известного парижского нумизмата, коллекционера и антиквара Абрахама Жозефа Мишле д’Эннери (1709-1786). В переписке Екатерины и Гримма он получил прозвище "Оракул", благодаря своей компетентности и интуиции в вопросах выбора античных артефактов, в том числе и резных камней. Эннери являлся также консультантом Гримма при приобретении других коллекций гемм, заинтересовавших русскую императрицу, например, кабинета барона де Бретейля, пополнившего императорское собрание в 1782 году. Коллекция резных камней самого Эннери, была выставлена на аукционную продажу после его смерти весной 1786 года и куплена Екатериной. Однако, несмотря на то, что это факт документально подтвержден, имя Эннери осталось лишь именем в длинном списке бывших владельцев, чьи собрания растворились в эрмитажном. Остались неизвестными количество приобретенных императрицей гемм и их стоимость. В современных учетных документах Музея ни один резной камень не числится происходящим из этой частной коллекции. До настоящего момента не предпринималось попыток идентифицировать инталии и камеи, некогда входившие в кабинет глиптики Эннери. Настоящая работа является попыткой реконструкции состава собрания гемм Мишле д’Эннери, поступивших в Эрмитаж. В процессе исследования пересматривается история владения и атрибуции некоторых эрмитажных резных камней, особое внимание среди которых уделено трем сердоликовым инталиям, имеющим богатую историю публикаций. В свете этих данных рассматриваются подходы к определению сюжетов указанных гемм, материала, из которого они выполнены, а также подходы к оценке их художественной ценности.              

инталии, Эрмитаж, история коллекционирования, геммы, резные камни, Абрахам Жозеф Мишле д’Эннери (1709-1786),глиптика

intaglios, Hermitage, collecting history, engraved gems, Abraham Joseph Michelet d’Ennery (1709-1786), glyptics

КАСТЕЛЛУЧЧА МАНУЭЛЬ (Университет Востока, Неаполь, Италия). Скальные рельефы и родственные связи в древнем Иране сквозь призму современности — наука, политика и национальный вопрос

MANUEL CASTELLUCCIA (University of Naples “L’Orientale”, Italy). Iranian Rock-Reliefs and Iranian Kingship through the Eyes of Modern Scholarship, Politics and Nationalism

From the early 14th century, European travellers became accustomed to ancient Iranian monuments, especially those referring to the pre-Islamic Iranian kingdoms, such as the Achaemenid and Sasanian empires. Starting from the 19th century, the development of artistic and archaeological methodologies and theories established new approaches for analyzing the visual representation of ancient Iranian kingship. The majority of the earliest studies of ancient Iranian monuments were mainly carried out by Western scholars, who also were partially influenced by a colonialist approach, considering the framework of international political struggle, with Persia battling to retain its independence from the expansion of the French, British and Russian empires. In the following decades, especially from the second half of the 20th century, new methodological approaches allowed a better understanding and analysis of ancient Iranian monuments. Particularly important was the development of a consciousness of its past among Iranian politics, intellectuals, and people. A further and partially dramatic approach was undertaken because of the Islamic Revolution in 1979.

Artistic representations dating to the Achaemenid and Sasanian period were mainly expressed by reliefs carved on natural rocks or disposed to adorn royal buildings. These reliefs, widespread throughout the Iranian Plateau, are the main visual expression of the conception of kingship and power by ancient Iranian ideology.

This mountainous area bordering Mesopotamia has a long story of reliefs carved on free-standing rocks or cliffs. Starting from the Early Bronze Age relief of Annubanini, the tradition of depicting royal images on rocks placed upon or nearby strategic places became one of the most distinguished features of ancient Persian art. It was especially during the local Iranian rules (Achaemenid, Parthian, Sassanian) that rock-reliefs greatly expanded. Many of them are intentionally placed on cliffs overlooking important communication and trade routes, intended to be seen by all travelers (nomads, merchants, future kings, or invaders). Others, on the contrary, are erected within or around religious spaces, thus establishing a direct link between the ruler and the deities.

These rock reliefs are an essential part of imperial art, used for displaying regality and supremacy. They were intended for celebrating the kingship and legitimizing power. Therefore, they were part of well-planned imperial propaganda intended to establish a hierarchical order at the top of which the king is the beneficent creators of an orderly system which stressed images of power, victory, piety, control, and harmonious order.

Therefore, the present presentation aims at exploring the different approaches carried out in the past decades for the analysis and interpretation of ancient Iranian kingship as expressed by rock-reliefs.

царская власть, пропаганда, Иран, Персия, Ахемениды, парфяне, Сасаниды

kingship, power, propaganda, Iran, Persia, Achaemenid, Parthian, Sasanian

ГАВРИЛОВИЧ ВИТАС НАДЕЖДА (Белградский Институт археологии, Сербия). Путешествие в античность глазами нашего современника: произведения римского искусства в Римских провинциях Средних Балкан

NADEŽDA GAVRILOVIĆ VITAS (Institute of Archaeology, Belgrade, Serbia). A Journey to the Antiquity through Contemporary Eyes: The Art Works from Central Balkans’ Roman Provinces

The Central Balkans’ Roman provinces, between which significant differences exist, primarily in the context of their founding, military and administrative organisation and cultural influences (before and after Roman conquest), are defined by economic, political and ideological processes, which emanated unique material and spiritual culture.

 Having in mind particular characteristics of each Central Balkans’ Roman province, we can observe cultural influences of different provenience and origin in archaeological and epigraphical material, particularly in art works and rich iconography from votive and funerary monuments. In a complex try of collecting, documenting, analysing and interpreting the abundant corpus of Roman art works, the publications of first researchers like Felix Kanitz, A. von Premerstein and N. Vulić, who collected and recorded antique monuments, are very valuable for the contemporary view of the historiography and art studies from Roman period. As different elements are significant for forming a valid picture in studying the art from the period of Roman reign in Central Balkans, important questions arise – would we be able to do it accurately without taking into the account all the art works that existed in the period when they were recorded by previously mentioned researchers, but don’t exist today? How important and reliable are those researches today, are they compatible and in what amount with historical sources? Finally, how much today the art studies rely on the historiography and how much the conclusions drawn from the revision of certain art works in the context of their valid interpretation, change already existing views in art studies from the Central Balkans’ Roman provinces.

 In this paper we would like to discuss previously mentioned on the examples of unique antique art works from various centres of Central Balkans’ Roman provinces, which have been saved in the works of historians and today are situated in the museums or only exist partially or not at all (for example the lost sculptures of goddess Nemesis from Viminatium and god Dionysus from Timacus Minus or statuary relief of goddess Epona). Through the comparison of the description of the art works from existing historic records and established views from art studies, we shall try to prove the existence of never presumed important iconographical types of sculptures, different art schools and styles which existed in Roman period (predominantly in urban centres like Sirmium, Singidunum, Viminatium, Naissus, Scupi etc.) and present new conclusions. We would like to challenge the existing opinions about the historiography and its’ relevance and validity in the context of studies of Roman art from Central Balkans’ Roman provinces, but also to show the importance of thorough collecting, analysing and interpretation of art works which, based on the historiography, were omitted in some cases and therefore, led to the wrong conclusions. In this paper, we shall discuss still open questions and present the current perception of the historiography and art studies from the Roman period in Central Balkans’ territory, emphasizing the significance of including all the existing elements into the corpus and valid interpretation of art works, which were modelled not only by the established canons of Roman art, but also carry distinct characteristics of the art of the Central Balkans’ province in question

произведения римского искусства, римские провинции на Средних Балканах, историография, изучение римского искусства

Roman art works, Central Balkans’ Roman provinces, historiography, studies in Roman art