In the second half of the 19th century European monumental plastic experienced great creative enthusiasm. In Russia, this process fully manifested itself as well. The nature of imaginative solutions and ways to implement them undergoes marked changes compared with the first half of the century. First of all, this is due to the changing role of the viewer. The viewer becomes a much more active participant in the process of creative problem formulation, selection of the project, its adjustment and evaluation of the result. Expansion of the social base of the recipient of the monumental image sets new demands to the master. Naturally, he begins to focus on less prepared audience. Such an approach brings about many changes in the choice of means of expression, including active introduction of additional information accents. As a result, in a number of projects their subject becomes a much more active participant in composition than the actual plastic image, traditionally oriented to the presentation of a human body. This has a direct impact on a number of creative principles. For example, master’s attitude to the material changes fundamentally correcting issues of proportioning and zooming in sculpture. One striking example of this new method of construction of the sculptural image is “The Monument to was the 1000th anniversary of Russia” in Novgorod. Representatives of the Moscow school of sculpture of the 19th— 20th centuries were to overcome this lack of independent creative thinking.
- Benua A. N. Art of Writing. Monument to Alexander III. Rech’ (Speech), 1909, 2 (15) July, pp. 2-3 (in Russian).
- Buslaev A. I. Imperskie iubilei — tysiacheletie Rossii (1862 god) i deviatisotletie kreshcheniia Rusi (1888 god): organizatsiia, simvolika, vospriiatie obshchestvom. Avtoreferat dissertatsii kandidata istoricheskikh nauk (Imperial Anniversaries — Millennium of Russia (1862) and 900th Anniversary of Baptism of Rus’ (1888): Organization, Symbols, Public Perception: Abstract of the Ph. D. dissertation). Moscow, 2010. 31 p. (in Russian).
- Kalugina O. V. Art Education in Russia in the Second Half of 19th Century. Imperatorskaia akademiia khudozhestv. Dokumenty i issledovaniia. K 250-letiiu so dnia osnovaniia (The Imperial Academy of Arts. Documents and Research. On the 250th Anniversary of Its Foundation). Moscow, Pamiatniki istoricheskoi mysli Publ., 2010, pp. 217-225 (in Russian).
- Kalugina O. V. Russkaia skul’ptura Serebrianogo veka: puteshestvie iz Peterburga v Moskvu (Russian Sculpture of the Silver Age: A Journey from Petersburg to Moscow). Moscow, BuksMart Publ., 2013. 336 p.
- Kanashkina O. N. M. O. Mikeshin — Author of the Famous Projects of Monuments of the Second Half of the 19th Century. Golubkina, Konenkov i nekotorye voprosy razvitiia russkoi skul’ptury Novogo vremeni. Stat’i, materialy, soobshcheniia (Golubkina, Konenkov and Some Issues of Russian Sculpture in Modern Times. Articles, Reports). Moscow, Galart Publ., 2015, pp. 303-318 (in Russian).
- Karpova E. V. (ed.). Zabytaia Rossiia. Proekty pamiatnikov i monumentalnaia skul’ptura XVIII — nachala XX veka (Forgotten Russia. Projects of Monuments and Monumental Sculpture 18th— the Beginning of the 20th Century). Saint Petersburg, Palace Editions Publ., 2006. 120 p. (in Russian).
- Karpova E. V. Russkaia i zapadnoevropeiskaia skul’ptura XVIII — nachala XX veka. Novye materialy. Nakhodki. Atributsii (Russian and Western European Sculpture of 18th — the Beginning of the 20th Century. New Materials. Finds. Attributions). Saint Petersburg, Iskusstvo Publ., 2009. 608 p. (in Russian).
- Kisun’ko V. G. (ed.). Russkaia khudozhestvennaia kul’tura vtoroi poloviny XIX veka (Russian Artistic Culture of the Second Half of the 19th Century). Moscow, Nauka Publ., 1988. 388 p. (in Russian).
- Krivdina O. A. Mark Antokolskii. Vystavka proizvedenii k 150-letiiu so dnia rozhdeniia. Katalog (Mark Antokolsky. The Exhibition to the 150th Anniversary of His Birth. Catalogue). Saint Petersburg, State Russian museum Publ., 1994. 88 p. (in Russian).
- Krivdina O. A. Archive of P. K. Klodt in the Russian Museum. Stranitsy istorii russkogo iskusstva XVI-XX veka (The Pages of History of Russian Art of the 16th-20th Centuries), 2007, vol. 14, pp. 132-133 (in Russian).
- Krivdina O. A.; Tychinin B. B. Skul’ptura i skul’ptory Sankt-Peterburga. 1703-2007: Illiustrirovannaia entsiklopediia (Sculpture and St. Petersburg Sculptors. 1703-2007: An Illustrated Encyclopedia). Saint Petersburg, Logos Publ., 2007. 768 p. (in Russian).
- Mayorova O. E. Immortal Rurik: Russia Millennium Celebration in 1862. Novoe literaturnoe obozrenie (New Literary Review), 2000, vol. 43, pp. 145-147 (in Russian).
- Riazantsev I. V. Skul’ptura Rossii XIX — nachala XX veka. Ocherki (Russia Sculpture of 19th — Early 20th Century. Essays). Moscow, Zhiraf Publ., 2003. 544 p. (in Russian).
- Rubinstein A. M. Monuments to Writers. Fundamental Electronic Library. Available at: http://feb-web.ru/ feb/kle/Kle-abc/Ke5/ke5-5621.htm (accessed 17 January 2016).
- Sarab’ianov D. V. Istoriia russkogo iskusstva vtoroi poloviny XIX veka (History of Russian Art of the Second Half of the 19th Century). Moscow, Moscow State university Publ., 1989. 384 p. (in Russian).
- Sedova I. N. The Subject in Modern Domestic Easel Figurative Plastic. To the Statement of the Problem. Evraziiskii Soiuz Uchenykh. Sovremennye kontseptsii nauchnykh issledovanii (Eurasian Union of Scientists. Modern Concepts of Scientific Research), 2015, vol. 4 (15), pp. 29-32 (in Russian).
- Sokol K. G. Monumentalnye pamiatniki Rossiiskoi imperii: katalog (Monuments of the Russian Empire. Catalogue). Moscow, Vagrius Plius Publ., 2006. 432 p. (in Russian).
- Sternin G. Iu. Russkaia khudozhestvennaia kul’tura vtoroi poloviny XIX — nachala XX veka (Russian Artistic Culture of the Second Half of 19th — Early 20th Century). Moscow, Sovetskii khudozhnik Publ., 1984. 296 p. (in Russian).
- Sternin G. Iu. Khudozhestvennaia zhizn Rossii serediny 19 veka (Art Life of Russia in the Middle of the 19th Century). Moscow, Iskusstvo Publ., 1991. 207 p. (in Russian).
- Vipper B. R. Vvedenie v istoricheskoe izuchenie iskusstva (Introduction to the Historical Study of Art). Moscow, Izobrazitel’noe iskusstvo Publ., 1985. 283 p. (in Russian).