Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item:
Title Some Principles of Italian Renaissance Theory and Practice and Their Reflection in the Workof Italian Architects in Russia in the 16th Century.
Author email
About author Batalov, Andrei Leonidovich — full doctor, professor, deputy director. Moscow Kremlin Museums, Kremlin, 103132 Moscow, Russian Federation.
In the section Old Russian Art DOI10.18688/aa166-3-24
Year 2016 Volume 6 Pages 229241
Type of article RAR Index UDK 7.033 (470.3) Index BBK 85.11

The article is dedicated to the issue of the coherence between the buildings by the 16th century Italian architects and the quest for an ideal church in Italian Renaissance. The artistic heritage of the Italian architects on Russian soil can be divided into two types: buildings whose structure and composition had some local prototypes and the ones without any genetic ties with local architecture. The article mostly deals with the second type which reflects the main tendencies of Italian Renaissance architecture. This type links with the development of a centric church in all its variants starting with the works of Florentine architects such as Brunelleschi and Michelozzo. Tractates by Francesco di Giorgio Martini, Leonardo’s graphic experiments, and the works of Bramante developed the architectural context for the architects who were hired to work for the Russian grand duke. In a very short time, these architects built a large number of centric churches of dif- ferent variants and thus enriched the whole concept of this type of churches.This trend of centric churches built by Italian architects in Russia crosses with the other trend, the new inter- pretation of Roman and Gothic heritage. The Gothic theme in Renaissance architecture, or maniera tedesca linked with Leonardo da Vinci, Baldassare Tommaso Peruzzi, Giacomo da Vignola, and others, has been actualized for the first time in connection with the Gothic themes in the appearance of Italian built churches in Moscow.

Reference Andrei Batalov. Some Principles of Italian Renaissance Theory and Practice and Their Reflection in the Workof Italian Architects in Russia in the 16th Century.. Actual Problems of Theory and History of Art: Collection of articles. Vol. 6. Eds: Anna V. Zakharova, Svetlana V. Maltseva, Ekaterina Yu. Stanyukovich-Denisova. St. Petersburg, NP-Print Publ., 2016, pp. 229–241. ISSN 2312-2129.
Publication Article language russian
  • Alberti L. B. De re ædificatoria. Florence, Niccolò di Lorenzo Publ., 1485 (in Latin).
  • Batalov A. L. To the History of Church Building in Moscow in the First Third of the 16th Century and the Problem of Topographical Localization of Ivanov Monastery. Drevenrusskoe iskusstvo. Drevnerusskoe i postvizantiiskoe iskusstvo: Vtoraia polovina XV – nachalo XVI veka. K 500-letiiu rospisi sobora Rozhdestva Bogoroditsy Ferapontova monastyria (Old Russian Art. Old Russian and Post-Byzantine Art). Moscow, Severnyi palomnik Publ., pp. 454–466 (in Russian).
  • Batalov A. L. On the Provenance of Canopy in Russian 16th Century Architecture. DRI. Ideia i obraz. Opyt izucheniia vizantiiskogo i drevnerusskogo iskusstva (Old Russian Art. Idea and Image. Essays in Byzantine and Old Russian Art). Moscow, Severnyi palomnik Publ., pp. 55–74 (in Russian).
  • Batalov A. L. Renaissance Creativity in Russian Architecture: Interpretation of the Consequences. Vestnik istorii, literatury, iskusstva (Herald of History, Literature, Art), 2006, vol. 3, pp. 215–229 (in Russian).
  • Batalov A. L. The Church of Ascension in Kremlin — a Little Studied Building of Petrok Maly. Lazarevskie chteniia: Iskusstvo Vizantii, Drevnei Rusi i Zapadnoi Evropy. Materialy nauchnoi konferentsii 2011 (Reading in Memory of V. N. Lazarev: The Art of Byzantium, Old Rus’ and Western Europe. Conference Proceedings, 2011). Moscow, Izdatel’stvo Moskovskogo universiteta Publ., 2012, pp. 162–183 (in Russian).
  • Batalov A. L.; Beliaev L. A. Tserkov’ Vozneseniia v Kolomenskom: arkhitektura, arkheologiia, istoriia (The Church of Ascension in Kolomenskoye: Architecture, Archeology and History). Moscow, MGOMZ Publ., 2013. 204 p. (in Russian).
  • Beljaev L. A. Italian Artists in the Moscow Rus’ from the Late 15th to the Middle of the 16 th Century: Architectural Concepts of Early Orientalism in the Renaissance Period. L’artista a Bisanzio e nel mondo cristiano- orientale. Pisa, Edizioni della Normale Publ., 2007, pp. 269–302.
  • Bernheimer R. Gothic Survival and Revival in Bologna. The Art Bulletin, 1954, vol. 36, nο. 4, pp. 263–284.
  • Białostocki J. The Art of the Renaissance in Eastern Europe. Hungary. Bohemia. Poland. Oxford, Phaidon Publ., 1976. 312 p.
  • Brandis M. Ein gotisches St. Peter? Peruzzis Entwürfe für S. Petronio in Bologna. Zeitschrift für Geschichte der Baukunst, 2000, vol. 30, pp. 97–140 (in German).
  • Bulkin V. A. On the Church of Ascension in Kolomenskoye. Kul’tura Srednevekovoi Rusi (The Culture of Mediaeval Rus). Leningrad, Nauka Publ., 1974, pp. 113–116 (in Russian).
  • Bulkin V. A. Ital’ianizmy v drevnerusskom zodchestve XVI v (Italianisms in 16th Century Old Russian Architecture). Unpublished Ph. D. thesis (in Russian).
  • Dedushenko B. P. St. Peter the Metropolitan’s Cathedral of Vysoko-Petrovskii Monastery in Moscow. Voprosy okhrany, restavratsii i propagandy pamiatnikov istorii i kul’tury (Issues of Preservation, Protection, Res- toration and Promotion of the Monuments of History and Culture), vol. 4. Moscow, Nauchno-issledovatel’skii Insitut Kul’tury Publ., 1976, pp. 158–173 (in Russian).
  • Demidov S. V.; Goncharova N. N.; Iaganov A. V.; Iakovlev D. E. The Church of Alexios the Metropolitan in Alexeevsky Monsatery in Uglich. An Essay In Reconstruction of Its Initial Appearance. ΣOFIA. Sbornik statei po iskusstvu Vizantii i Drevnei Rusi v chest’ A. I. Komecha (SOFIA. Collection of Articles In the Art of Byzantium and Old Rus in the Honor of A. I. Komech). Moscow, Severnyi palomnik Publ., 2006, pp. 121–152 (in Russian).
  • Evdokimov G. S. A 16th Century Church in the Basement of St. Barbara Church on Varvarka: Preliminary Research Results. Moskovskaia Rus’. Problemy arkheologii i istorii arkhitektury. K 60-letiiu L. A. Beliaeva (Muscovite Rus. Problems of Archaeology and Architectural History. To the 60th Anniversary of L. A. Belyaev. Moscow, Institut Arkheologii RAN Publ., 2008, pp. 233–243 (in Russian).
  • Iaganov A. V.; Ruzaeva E. I. Uspenskii sobor v Dmitrove (Dormition Cathedral in Dmitrov). Moscow, Severnyi palomnik Publ., 2003. 304 p. (in Russian).
  • Kavel’makher V. V.; Panova T. D. Vestiges of a White-Stone 14th Century Church on Moscow Kremlin Cathedrals Square. Kul’tura Srednevekovoi Moskvy XIV–XVII vv. (Culture of Mediaeval Moscow, 14th–17th Centuries). Moscow, Nauka Publ., 1995, pp. 66–83 (in Russian).
  • Lazarev V. N. Nachalo rannego Vozrozhdeniia v ital’ianskom iskusstve. Arkhitektura. Skul’ptura. Zhivopis’. Traktaty (The Beginning of the Early Renaissance in Italian Art. Architecture, Sculpture, Painting, Treatises), vol. 1. Moscow, Iskusstvo Publ., 1979. 240 p. (in Russian). Maltese C.; Maltese Degrassi L. (eds.) Francesco di Giorgio Martini. Trattati di architettura ingegneria e arte militare, vol. 1: Architetture, ingegneria e arte militare dai codici Torinese Saluzziano. Milano, Polifilo Publ., 1967. 289 p. (in Italian).
  • Mel’nik A. G. Interior of Moscow Dormition Cathedral as an Important Paradigm in Russian 16th Century Church Architecture. Istoriia i kul’tura Rostovskoi zemli. 1994 (History and Culture of Rostov Land. 1994). Rostov, Gosudarstvenny Muzei-zapovednik «Rostovskii Kreml’» Publ., 1995, pp. 124–133 (in Russian).
  • Mil’chik M. I.; Petrov D. A. Dormition Church of Ivangorod and Its Venetian Prototypes. Krepost’ Ivan- gorod: Novye otkrytiia (Ivangorod Fortress: New Findings). Saint-Petersburg, Dmitrii Bulanin Publ., 1997, pp. 124–163 (in Russian).
  • Petrov D. A. Problems of Reconstruction of Initial Appearance and the Place in the History of Architec- ture. Svod pamiatnikov arkhitektury Moskovskogo Kremlia. Vol. 1: Ivan Velikii i ansambl’ sobornykh zvonnits (Catalogue of Architectural Mionuments of Moscow Kremlin. Vol. 1: Ivan the Great and the Ensemble of the Bell-towers). Moscow, Moskovskii Kreml’ Publ., 2015, pp. 26–52 (in Russian).
  • Petrov D. A. Centric Buildings of the Time of Vasilii III and Regency of Elena Glinskaya. The Problems of Interpretation. Arkhiv arkhitektury (Architecture Archive), 1997, vol. 9, pp. 128–161 (in Russian).
  • Pod’iapol’skii S. S. The Architect Petrok Maly. Pamiatniki russkoi arkhitektury i monumental’nogo iskusstva: Stil’, atributsii, datirovki (Monuments of Russian Architecture and Moumental Art: Style, Attribution, Dating). Moscow, Nauka Publ., 1983, pp. 34–50 (in Russian).
  • Pod’iapol’skii S. S. Venetian Sources of the Architecture of Moscow Archangel’s Cathedral. Old Russian Art. Foreign Contacts. Moscow, Nauka Publ., 1975, pp. 252–279 (in Russian).
  • Pod’iapol’skii S. S. Istoriko-arkhitekturnye issledovaniia. Stat’i i materialy (Studies in the History of Architecture). Moscow, Indrik Publ., 2006, 320 p. (in Russian).
  • Pod’iapol’skii S. S. On the Activities of Aleviz Novy in Russia. Drevnerusskoe iskusstvo. Problemy atributsii (Old Russian Art. The Problems of Attribution). Moscow, Gosudarstvennyi institut iskusstvoznaniia Publ., 1993, pp. 188–189 (in Russian).
  • Pod’iapol’skii S. S.; Evdokimov G. S.; Ruzaeva E. I.; Iaganov A. V.; Iakovlev D. E. New Data on the Kremlin Palace of the Late 15th – Early 16th Century. Drevnerusskoe iskusstvo. Russkoe iskusstvo Pozdnego Srednevekov’ia: XVI vek (Old Russian Art. Russian Art of the Late Middle Ages: the 16th Century). Saint-Petersburg, Dmitrii Bulanin Publ., 2003, pp. 51–98 (in Russian).
  • Ratomskaia Iu. V. On the Question of Prototypes of Russian Tower-Like Churches of the 1520–1530s. Moskovskii Kreml’ XV stoletiia. T. II. Arkhangel’skii sobor i kolokol’nia “Ivan Velikii” Moskovskogo Kremlia. 500 let (Moscow Kremlin in the 15th Century. Vol. 2: Archangel’s Cathedral and the Bell-Tower “Ivan the Great” of the Moscow Kremlin. 500th Anniversary). Moscow, Moskovskii Kreml’ Publ., 2011, pp. 292–299 (in Russian).
  • Ratomskaia Iu. V. The Church of St. John Climacus in Moscow Kremlin as a Prototype in Building the Tower-Like Churches in the Time of Ivan the Terrible. Moskovskii Kreml’ XV stoletiia. T. II. Arkhangel’skii sobor i kolokol’nia “Ivan Velikii” Moskovskogo Kremlia. 500 let (Moscow Kremlin in the 15th Century. Vol. 2: Archangel’s Cathedral and the Bell-Tower “Ivan the Great” of the Moscow Kremlin. 500th Anniversary). Moscow, Moskovskii Kreml’ Publ., 2011, pp. 282–291 (in Russian).
  • Schofield R.; Sironi G. New Information on San Satiro. Bramante Milanese e l’architettura del Rinascimento Lombardo. Vicenza, Marsilio Publ., 2002, pp. 281–296 (in Italian).
  • Sedov Vl. V. An Italian Architect in Pskov in the 16th Century. Arkhitektura mira. Vyp. 2: Vzaimodeistvie traditsii v arkhitekture: Materialy konferentsii “Zapad — Vostok” (Architecture of the World. 2. Interaction of Traditions in Architecture. Proceedings of the Conference “West — East”). Moscow, Kolo Publ., 1993, pp. 22–27 (in Russian).
  • Vasari G. Le vite de’ più eccellenti architetti, pittori, et scultori italiani, da Cimabue insino a’ tempi nostril, vol. 1. Florence, Giunti Publ., 1568. 576 p. (in Italian).
  • Vygolov V. P. On the Question of Buildings and the Personality of Aleviz Fryazin. Drevnerusskoe iskusstvo. Issledovaniia i atributsii (Old Russian Art. Studies and Attributions). Saint-Petersburg, Dmitrii Bulanin Publ., 1997, pp. 234–245 (in Russian).