ГАВРИЛОВИЧ ВИТАС НАДЕЖДА (Белградский Институт археологии, Сербия). Путешествие в античность глазами нашего современника: произведения римского искусства в Римских провинциях Средних Балкан
NADEŽDA GAVRILOVIĆ VITAS (Institute of Archaeology, Belgrade, Serbia). A Journey to the Antiquity through Contemporary Eyes: The Art Works from Central Balkans’ Roman Provinces
The Central Balkans’ Roman provinces, between which significant differences exist, primarily in the context of their founding, military and administrative organisation and cultural influences (before and after Roman conquest), are defined by economic, political and ideological processes, which emanated unique material and spiritual culture.
Having in mind particular characteristics of each Central Balkans’ Roman province, we can observe cultural influences of different provenience and origin in archaeological and epigraphical material, particularly in art works and rich iconography from votive and funerary monuments. In a complex try of collecting, documenting, analysing and interpreting the abundant corpus of Roman art works, the publications of first researchers like Felix Kanitz, A. von Premerstein and N. Vulić, who collected and recorded antique monuments, are very valuable for the contemporary view of the historiography and art studies from Roman period. As different elements are significant for forming a valid picture in studying the art from the period of Roman reign in Central Balkans, important questions arise – would we be able to do it accurately without taking into the account all the art works that existed in the period when they were recorded by previously mentioned researchers, but don’t exist today? How important and reliable are those researches today, are they compatible and in what amount with historical sources? Finally, how much today the art studies rely on the historiography and how much the conclusions drawn from the revision of certain art works in the context of their valid interpretation, change already existing views in art studies from the Central Balkans’ Roman provinces.
In this paper we would like to discuss previously mentioned on the examples of unique antique art works from various centres of Central Balkans’ Roman provinces, which have been saved in the works of historians and today are situated in the museums or only exist partially or not at all (for example the lost sculptures of goddess Nemesis from Viminatium and god Dionysus from Timacus Minus or statuary relief of goddess Epona). Through the comparison of the description of the art works from existing historic records and established views from art studies, we shall try to prove the existence of never presumed important iconographical types of sculptures, different art schools and styles which existed in Roman period (predominantly in urban centres like Sirmium, Singidunum, Viminatium, Naissus, Scupi etc.) and present new conclusions. We would like to challenge the existing opinions about the historiography and its’ relevance and validity in the context of studies of Roman art from Central Balkans’ Roman provinces, but also to show the importance of thorough collecting, analysing and interpretation of art works which, based on the historiography, were omitted in some cases and therefore, led to the wrong conclusions. In this paper, we shall discuss still open questions and present the current perception of the historiography and art studies from the Roman period in Central Balkans’ territory, emphasizing the significance of including all the existing elements into the corpus and valid interpretation of art works, which were modelled not only by the established canons of Roman art, but also carry distinct characteristics of the art of the Central Balkans’ province in question
произведения римского искусства, римские провинции на Средних Балканах, историография, изучение римского искусства
Roman art works, Central Balkans’ Roman provinces, historiography, studies in Roman art