Volgograd State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering, Russia
In the first half of the 19th century classical forms and architecture methods were perceived and adopted in the construction of stone temples in Saratov province. This significant stratum in the architectural heritage of the region, which underwent enormous losses, is so far insufficiently studied and evaluated. The intention of this paper is to define the range of religious memorials where classicism revealed most of its potential in Saratov province in the first half of the 19th century.
The urgency of the research lies in the necessity to comprehend a regional peculiarity of Orthodox architecture and develop restoration and reconstruction projects. For the first time a detailed typological analysis of the temples in classicism style in the region has been carried out. Alongside with this, planning and composition properties of the memorials have been defined. The work is based on archives, such as RGIA, GASO, GAVO, as well as field investigations of the objects, measurements and photographic images made by the author. New evidence has been put into scientific use which will help create a more accurate account of temples in classicism style not only within the region but also in the history of the Russian architecture on the whole.
The interrelationship between the capital and provinces was an important point in the process of classicism formation in Saratov region. The manifestation of classicism in Saratov province was promoted by the fact that there already existed splendid metropolitan examples of the early classicism in the estates of the second half of the 18th century in this district.
In the 1820s–1830s big five-cupola churches are constructed. Typical samples of classicism are churches with three-part composition. Domed temples without pole, churches of nave type “ship” with an octagon at the top were constructed. Some tendencies of organic combination with elements of classicism are evident in them. Temples with three-part structure where octagon starts to be ousted by a rotunda and churches with two bell towers are rare.
The analysis of the religious architecture memorials in classicism style in Saratov province of the first half of the 19th century showed that various types of classicism temples developed there which met local requirements.