The article deals with several examples of different perspective systems, used by Italian artist Giuseppe Castiglione (Lang Shining), who led a group of court painters at the Manchu court in Beijing, developing the new artistic xianfa method (the linear method). Analysing linear perspective in two hanging and one horizontal (hand-) scrolls, the author demonstrates the artist’s masterly combination of traditional Chinese axonometric depiction with European perspective system while depicting buildings and landscapes, demanded by his royal clients. Touching on the differences between execution and perception of the verticaland horizontal scrolls, the author demonstrates Castiglione’s ability to combine European and Chinese traditional approaches to space delineation, when the artist composes large forms according to the linear perspective principles, and depicts smaller objects using Chinese axonometry. The composition of renowned scroll The Hundred Horses is analysed in detail, being the unique example of surviving Castiglione’s early painting, where the artist unified three perspective vistas with respective vanishing points. The author argues that only format, technique, and pictorial motifs of this work connect this scroll with Chinese tradition, defining origins of Lang Shining’s reopening Chinese multifocal perspective in the artist’s masterly usage of European theatrical scenography theoreticians’ legacy.
- Corsi E. Late Baroque Painting in China Prior to the Arrival of Matteo Ripa: Giovanni Gherardini, and the Perspective Painting Called Xianfa. Napoli, Istituto Universitario Orientale Publ., 1999. 38 p.
- Corsi E. Envisioning Perspective: Nian Xiyao (1617–1738)’s Rendering of Western Perspective in the Prologues to “The Science of Vision”. Forte A.; Masini F. (eds.). A Life Journey to the East, Sinological Studies in memory of Giuliano Bertuccioli (1923–2001). Kyoto, Italian School of East Asian Studies Publ., 2002, pp. 201–243.
- Corsi E. La fábrica de las ilusiones: Los Jesuitas y la difusión de la perspectiva lineal en China, 1698–1766. Mexico City, El Colegio de México Publ., 2004. 242 p. (in Spanish).
- Dubrovskaya D. V. Missiia iezuitov v Kitae (Mission of Jesuits in China). Moscow, Institute of Oriental Studies, Craft Plus Publ., 2000. 256 p. (in Russian).
- Dubrovskaya D. V. Jesuit Painter Giuseppe Castiglione (1688–1766) and Xi-Y. Materialy Tret’ei mezhdunarodnoi konferentsii uigurovedov (Proceedings of the 3rd International Uighur Studies Conference). Moscow, Institute of Oriental Studies, Russian Academy of Sciences Publ., 2017, pp. 196–201 (in Russian).
- Dubrovskaya D. V. On Giuseppe Castiglione’s (Lang Shining’s) Portraiture as a Contribution to Sino-European Style in Chinese Art. Vestnik IV RAN (Journal of the Institute of Oriental Studies), 2018, no. 2, pp. 80–90 (in Russian).
- Dubrovskaya D. V. Jesuits and the Enlightenment: The New Vision of China from Matteo Ricci to Adam Smith. Orientalistika (Orientalistica), 2018, no. 2, pp. 194–209 (in Russian).
- Dubrovskaya D. V. Giuseppe Castiglione’s Portraiture between Chinese and European Traditions. Sobranie. Iskusstvo i kul’tura (Collection. Art and Culture), 2018, no. 6, pp. 53–70 (in Russian).
- Dubrovskaya D. V. Lan Shinin, ili Dzhuzeppe Kastilione (1688–1766) pri dvore Syna Neba (Lang Shining, or Giuseppe Castiglione at the Court of the Son of Heaven). Moscow, Institute of Oriental Studies Publ., 2018. 140 p. (in Russian).
- Dubrovskaya D. V. Peaceful Message of Emperor Qianlong (1711–1799). Vostok/Oriens, 2019, no. 3, pp. 91–103.
- Dubrovskaya D. V. Vision as a Speculum: European Visual Theories, and Jesuit Artists’ Accomodative Style in China. Voprosy Filosofii, 2019, no. 4, pp. 166–172 (in Russian).
- Mungello D. The Great Encounter of China and the West, 1500–1800. New York; Plymouth, Rowman & Littlefield Publ., 2009. 167 p.
- Musillo M. The Shining Inheritance: Italian Painters at the Qing Court, 1699–1812. Los Angeles, Getty Publ., 2016. 184 p.
- Ning Ding; Chu ten-Doesschate P. (eds.). Qing Encounters: Artistic Exchanges between China and the West (Issues & Debates). Los Angeles, Getty Research Institute Publ., 2015. 320 p.
- Osborne H. Oxford Companion to Art. Oxford, Clarendon Press Publ., 1970. 1277 p.
- Panovsky E. Perspektiva kak simvolicheskaia forma. Goticheskaia arhitektura i sholastika (Perspective as a
- Symbolical Form. Gothic Architecture and Scholastics). St. Petersburg, Azbuka Publ., 2004. 336 p. (in Russian).
- Pozzo A. Perspective in Architecture and Painting: An Unabridged Reprint of the English-And-Latin Edition of the 1693 “Perspectiva Pictorum Et Architectorum”. New York, Dover Publications Publ., 1989. 224 p.
- Rawski E. S. The Last Emperors: A Social History of Qing Imperial Institutions. Berkeley, Los Angeles, University of California Press Publ., 2001. 481 p.
- Shepard R. N. Mind Sights: Original Visual Illusions, Ambiguities, and Other Anomalies. New York, Macmillan Learning Publ., 1990. 228 p.
- Sullivan M. The Arts of China. Berkeley, University of California Press Publ., 1999. 320 p.
- Van Briessen F. The Way of the Brush: Painting Techniques of China and Japan. North Clarendon, Tuttle Publ., 1998. 329 p.
- Tseng Yu. Castiglione: First Western Painter of Underwater Living Fish. Orientations, 1988, no. 19 (11), pp. 52–61.
- Tyler С. W.; Chen Chien-Chung. Chinese Perspective as a Rational System: Relationship to Panofsky’s Symbolic Form. Chinese Journal of Psychology, 2011, no. 53 (4), pp. 7–27.
- Yang Boda. Castiglione at the Qing Court — An Important Artistic Contribution. Orientations, 1988, no. 19 (11), pp. 44–52.
- Yang Boda. The Development of the Ch’ien-lung Painting Academy. Murck A.; Wen Fong (eds.). Words and Images: Chinese Poetry, Calligraphy, and Painting. New York, Metropolitan Museum of Art Publ., 2013, pp. 333–345.
- Zhu Jiajin. Castiglione’s Tieluo Paintings. Orientations, 1988, no. 19 (11), pp. 80–84.