Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://dx.doi.org/10.18688/aa155-1-11
Title A Roman Portrait’s Metamorphosis: the “Sallust” Bust from the Hermitage Collection
Author email aa-trofimova@yandex.ru
About author Trofimova, Anna Alekseevna — Ph. D., head of the Department of Classical Antiquities. The State Hermitage Museum. Dvortsovaia nаb., 34, 190000 St. Petersburg, Russian Federation
In the section Classical Antiquity and the World around Hellas DOI10.18688/aa155-1-11
Year 2015 Volume 5 Pages 119126
Type of article RAR Index UDK 7.032 (37) Index BBK 85.13; 63.3(0)32
Abstract

A typical example of ancient Roman portrait that was undergoing changes in course of several centuries is the so-called “Sallust” held by the Hermitage museum. Inscription on a plinth was recognized to be a fraud, while the bust was attributed to Roman work of the period of Trajan’s reign (early 90s AD or early 2nd century AD). Compared with the renowned items from the Trajan epoch, the Hermitage bust was always notable for its unusual style. Detailed study of the piece allowed the author to prove that the ancient original was reworked and styled as a Republican portrait around 125–150 AD. The greater changers touched upon the face: corrections made the original image strikingly different. Traces of the changes made in antiquity evidently differ from the later ones that were added supposedly in the first half of the 19th century when the sculpture was held by G.-P. Campana. Judging from the genuine areas of the surface, the original style of the piece should be referred to as monumental, more simple, rough, and schematic. Its new version is characterized with exaggerated physiognomic sharp features and glance full of fanaticism, which correspond the idea of the Roman historian Sallust. It is thus not surprising that in the 19th century the name was added to a portrayed person to assign a higher price to the piece. 

Keywords
Reference Anna Trofimova. A Roman Portrait’s Metamorphosis: the “Sallust” Bust from the Hermitage Collection. Actual Problems of Theory and History of Art: Collection of articles. Vol. 5. Eds: Svetlana V. Maltseva, Ekaterina Yu. Stanyukovich-Denisova, Anna V. Zakharova. St. Petersburg, NP-Print Publ., 2015, pp. 119–126. ISSN 2312-2129. http://dx.doi.org/10.18688/aa155-1-11
Publication Article language russian
Bibliography
  • Bergmann M. Rez. Poulsen: Les portraits romains. II: De Vespasien а la Basse-Antiquité. 1: Texte. 2: Planches (1974). Gnomon. Kritische Zeitschrift für die gesamte klassische Altertumswissenschaft, 1981, no. 53, pp. 176–190 (in German).
  • Bernoulli J. J. Römische Ikonographie, vol. I–II. Stuttgart, W. Spemann Publ., 1882–1894. 420 p. (in German).
  • D’Escamps H. Description des marbres antiquies du Musée Campana а Rome. Paris, de H. Plon Publ., 1856. 112 p. (in French).
  • Daltrop G. Die stadtrömischen männlichen Privatbildnisse Trajanischer und Hadrianischer Zeit. Münster, Sebstverlag Publ., 1958. 131 p. (in German).
  • Dessau H. Inscriptiones Latinae selectae, vol. I. Berlin, Weidmann Publ., 1954. 580 p. (in Latin).
  • Feletti B. M. Maj. Museo Nazionale Romano: I Ritratti. Roma, Libreria dello Stato Publ., 1953. 178 p. (in Italian).
  • Fittschen K.; Zanker P.; Cain P. Katalog der römischen Porträts in den Capitolinischen Museen und den anderen kommunalen Sammlungen der Stadt Rom. vol. II, Die männlichen Privatporträts. Berlin — New York, W. de Gruyter Publ., 2010. 252 p.; 254 taf. (in German).
  • Gasparri C. Le Sculture Farnese – II: I ritratti. Milano, Electa Publ., 2009. 354 p. (in Italian).
  • Goette H. R. Das Bildnis des Marcus Vilonius Varro in Kopenhagen: zu den Basen von Portraitbüsten und zum Realismus Flavisch-Trajanischer Bildnisse. Boreas. Münstersche Beiträge zur Archдologie. Münster, 1984, no. 7, pp. 89–104 (in German).
  • Gross W. H. Bildnisse Trajans. Das römische Herrscherbild. Abt. 2. Vol. 2. Berlin, Mann Publ., 1940. 141p. (in German).
  • Johansen F. Catalogue of Roman Portraits, Ny Carlsberg Glyptotek. Part II. Kopenhagen, Ny Carlsberg Glyptotek Publ., 1995. 300 p.
  • Jucker H. Das Bildnis in Blättenkelch. Geschichte und Bedeutung einer römische Porträtform. Olten, Urs Graf Verlag Publ., 1961. 228 p. (in German).
  • Kaschnitz von Weinberg G. Römische Bildnisse. Ausgewӓhlte Schriften, vol. II. Berlin, Mann Publ., 1965. 138 p. (in German).
  • Kizeritskii G. E. Imperatorskii Ermitazh. Muzei antichnoi skul’ptury (The Imperial Hermitage. The Museum of Ancient Sculpture). Saint Petersburg, A. Benke’s Typography Publ., 1901. 184 p. (in Russian).
  • Museo Nazionale Romano. Le Sculture. A cura di Antonio Giuliano. I, 9. Magazzini. I Ritratti. Parte I–II. Roma, De Luca Editore Publ., 1987–1988. 468 p. (in Italian).
  • Lullies R. (ed.). Neue Beiträge zur Klassischen Altertumswissenschaft. Festschrift zum 60. Geburtstag von B. Schweitzer. Stuttgart, Kohlhammer Publ., 1954. 419 p. (in German).
  • Poulsen V. Les Portraits Romains, vol. I. Kopenhagen, Ejnar Munksgaard Publ., 1962. 148 p. (in French).
  • Poulsen V. Les Portrait Romains, vol. II. Kopenhagen, Ejnar Munksgaard Publ., 1974. 220 p. (in French).
  • Schefold K. Die Bildnisse der antiken Dichter, Reder und Denker. Basel, B. Schwabe & Co. Publ., 1997. 599 p. (in German).
  • Schröder St. F. Katalog der antiken Skulpturen des Museo del Prado in Madrid 1. Die Porträts. Madrid, Verlag Phillip von Zabern in Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft Publ., 1993. 310 p. (in German).
  • Toynbee J. M. C. Roman Historical Portraits. London, Thames and Hudson Publ., 1978. 208 p.
  • Ushakova T. V. Roman Portrait Sculpture of Trajan’s Time Based on the Hermitage Collection. Antichnyi portret. Sbornik statei, posviashchennyi O. F. Val’dgaueru (Ancient Portrait. A Festschrift for O. F. Waldhauer). Leningrad, Academia Publ., 1929, pp. 57–87 (in Russian).
  • Waldhauer O. F. Antichnaia skul’ptura (Ancient sculpture). Petrograd, Brockhauz-Efron Publ., 1923. 172 p. (in Russian).
  • Waldhauer O. F. Rimskaia portretnaia skul’ptura v Ermitazhe (Roman Portrait Sculpture in the Hermitage). Petrograd, Brockhaus-Efron Publ., 1923. 111 p. (in Russian).
  • Waldhauer O. F. Etiudy po istorii antichnogo portreta (Etudes on the History of Antique Portrait). Leningrad, OGIZ–IZOGIZ Publ., 1938. 294 p. (in Russian).
  • Voschtschinina A. I. Le Portrait Romain. Musée de L’Ermitage. Léningrad, Éditions D‘Art Aurore Publ., 1974. 213 p. (in French).