Shpak, Larisa Iurievna — Ph. D., senior researcher. Research Institute and Museum of Anthropology, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Mokhovaya ul., 11, Moscow, 125009, Russian Federation. firstname.lastname@example.org ORCID:0000-0002-6936-9426
Perevozchikov, Il’ia Vasilievich (1939‒2021) — full doctor, chief researcher. Research Institute and Museum of Anthropology, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Mokhovaya ul., 11, Moscow, 125009, Russian Federation.
Already in the early stages of the development of anthropology as an independent branch of knowledge, researchers focused on fine art as a source of anthropological information. Before the era of photography, information about a person’s appearance could be obtained either from his description by contemporaries, or from his lifetime portraiture. In anthropology, the main method of obtaining information about the biological characteristics of the ancient population is the study of bone remains. Both approaches were combined in the method of anthropological face reconstruction (M. M. Gerasimov), but some important features (for example, pigmentation, hair shape, etc) remain outside the description system. The authors have applied not an individual-typological, but a population approach to the study of human images. A group of images has been analyzed as a sample of individuals from the same territory and chronological period with the calculations of ordinary statistics and the construction of composite portraits (F. Galton’s method). This approach enables us to visualize the images of the ancient and modern population of Europe by portraiture. Determining descriptive morphological features, a standard set of scales accepted in anthropology was used. Composite images were constructed and analyzed for modern groups, such as Russian portrait painting of the 17th–19th centuries and European portraiture of the 16th–17th centuries. Among ancient groups, Fayum burial portraits and Etruscan-Roman votive terracotta heads have been examined. The anthropological study of fine art is promising both in the research of the ethnogenesis of the ancient population groups of Europe, and in the study of the early stages of portraiture.
- Abramova Z. A. Izobrazheniia cheloveka v paleoliticheskom iskusstve Evrazii (Human Images in the Paleolithic Art of Eurasia). Moscow, Nauka Publ., 1966. 224 p. (in Russian).
- Antonova E. V. Antropomorfnaia skulptura drevnikh zemledeltsev Perednei i Srednei Azii (Anthropomorphic Sculpture of Ancient Agriculturalist of the Near and Middle Asia). Moscow, Nauka Publ., 1977. 152 p. (in Russian).
- Bunak V. V. Anthropometry. Moscow, Uchpedgiz Publ., 1941. 368 p. (in Russian).
- Buzhilova A. P. Anthropological Portraits: Illustration or Independent Source? Vestnik antropologii (The Bulletin of Anthropology), Moscow, 2007, no. 15, рart 1, pp. 45‒51 (in Russian).
- Comella A. Offerte in forma di figura umana. Barlty J. Ch. et al. (eds.). Thesaurus cultus et rituum antiquorum I. Los Angeles, Getty Publ., 2004, pp. 330–359 (in Italian).
- Galton F. Composite Portraits Made by Combining Those of Many Different Persons into a Single Figure. Nature, 1878, vol. 18, pp. 97‒100.
- Gerasimova M. M. Litsa nashikh predkov. K 100-letiiu so dnia rozhdeniia M. M. Gerasimova (The Faces of Our Ancestors. To The 100th Anniversary of the Birth of M. M. Gerasimov). St. Petersburg, Museum of Anthropology and Ethnography of the Russian Academy of Sciences Publ., 2007. 48 p. (in Russian).
- Graham D.; Pallett P.; Meng M.; Leder H. Representation and Aesthetics of the Human Face in Portraiture. Art and Perception, 2014, vol. 2, pp. 75‒98.
- Khrisanfova E. N.; Perevozchikov I. V. Anthropology. Moscow, Moscow State University Publ., 2005. 400 p. (in Russian).
- Lokk K. Je. Zhivopisnyi portret kak istochnik antropologicheskoi informatsii (metodicheskie aspekty) (Portrait Painting as a Source of Anthropological Information (Methodological Aspects), Ph. D. Dissertation. Moscow, 2011. 160 p. (in Russian).
- Lokk K. Je. Computer Methods of Summation Image. Composite Portrait and Average Face Shape. Moscow University Anthropology Bulletin, 2011, no. 1, pp. 37‒44 (in Russian).
- Martin R. Lehrbuch der Anthropologie in systematischer Darstellung. Erster band: Somatologie. Jena, Verlag von Gustav Fisher Publ., 1928. 578 p. (in German).
- Maurer A. M. Obobshhionnyi fotoportret kak istochnik antropologicheskoi informatsii (Composite Photographic Portrait as a Source of Anthropological Information), Ph. D. Dissertation. Moscow, 2011. 162 p. (in Russian).
- Mavleev E. V. Etruscan Portrait Concept. Semantics of Search and Artistic Discovery. Obraz — smysl v antichnoj kul’ture (Image — Meaning in Ancient Culture). Moscow, 1990, pp. 203‒222 (in Russian).
- Perevozchikov I. V.; Lokk K. Je., Suhova A. V.; Tihomirov M. N. The Results of an Anthropological Study of Portrait Painting in Russia in the 18th‒19th Centuries. Moscow University Anthropology Bulletin, 2011, no. 1, pp. 25‒36 (in Russian).
- Perevozchikov I. V.; Maurer A. M. Composite Photographic Portrait: History, Methods, Results. Moscow University Anthropology Bulletin, 2009, no. 1, pp. 35‒44 (in Russian).
- Perevozchikov I. V.; Shpak L. Iu.; Shimanovskaya A. S. The Anthropology of the Fayum Oasis of the 1st‒4th Centuries AD. Moscow University Anthropology Bulletin, 2012, no. 4, pp. 127–133 (in Russian).
- Perevozchikov I. V.; Shpak L. Iu. To the Anthropology of the Etruscans. Moscow University Anthropology Bulletin, 2018, no. 1, pp. 73‒85 (in Russian).
- Perevozchikov I. V.; Vergeles M. O.; Shpak L. Iu.; Sukhova A. V. The Anthropological Characteristics of the Amsterdam Population from the 16th and 17th Centuries. Moscow University Anthropology Bulletin, 2015, no. 4, pp. 97‒106 (in Russian).
- Roginsky Ia. Ia. Ob istokakh vozniknoveniia iskusstva (About the Origins of Art). Moscow, Moscow State University Publ., 1982. 32 p. (in Russian).
- Shpak L. Iu. Aesthetic Perception as Biological Characteristic of Homo Sapiens (Y. Y. Roginsky’s Opinion on the Origin of Art). Moscow University Anthropology Bulletin, 2015, no. 4, pp. 116‒125 (in Russian).
- Shpak L. Iu. The Ancient Image of Man: Information Content in Its Application in Physical Anthropology. Moscow University Anthropology Bulletin, 2015, no. 4, pp. 116‒125 (in Russian).
- Shpak L. Iu. The Ancient Mediterranean Anatomical Votives: The Cultural and Historical Phenomenon of the Representation of Biological and Medical Knowledge (From Literary Sources). Moscow University Anthropology Bulletin, 2018, no. 3, pp. 102‒117 (in Russian).
- Steingraeber S. Zum Phanomen der etruskisch-italischen Votivkopfe. Römische Mitteilungen (Mitteilungen des Deutschen Archaologishen), 1980, vol. 87, pp. 215‒253 (in German).
- Trofimova A. A. (ed.). Portrait Art. Exhibition Catalogue from the Collection of the State Hermitage. Kazan, Historical and Cultural Museum-Reserve “Kazan Kremlin”. St. Petersburg, The State Hermitage Museum Publ., 2018. 240 p. (in Russian).
- Turfa J. M. Anatomical Votives. Balty J. Ch. et al. (eds.). Thesaurus Cultus et Rituum Antiquorum I. Los Angeles, Getty Publ., 2004, pp. 359‒368.
- Vergeles M. O. Realism of Face Depiction in Portraiture. Arheologiia, etnografiia i antropologiia Evrazii (Archeology, Ethnography and Anthropology of Eurasia). Novosibirsk, 2018, no. 3, pp. 146‒152 (in Russian).
- Zinin A. M. Vneshnost’ cheloveka v kriminalistike i sudebnoi ekspertize (Human Appearance in Criminalistics and Forensic Science). Moscow, Juristic literature information Publ., 2015. 200 p. (in Russian).